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InfraNodus
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T Following its referendum and a fairly prolonged legislative process. The United Kingdom is leaving the European union within the deadline set by its latest prime minister Boris Johnson of January 31st, 2020 the withdrawal agreements have been signed and countersigned and then you transition period, which will last at least a year has started. This is definitely a triumph because it can be done and it can be done peacefully. I think these also a tragedy because a slim majority of voters that do not represent the majority of the population decided on the future of the country for decades to come. Highlighting again the shortcomings of the current democratic processes.

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So let's look at some analogies and let's look at what set up the process like this. What allows the process like this? And let's look at the meaning of Brexit for U K as well as the implications for the rest of the EU and the world. If you're thinking about it, 150 years ago, a bunch of Southern states of another union, of the USA decided that they wanted to secede. And that process was all about the peaceful. The Northern States said, you want to leave? Well, we'd rather kill you. And of course the reasons for the Southern States to leave were horrible. They wanted to keep slavery legal and the reasons for the Northern States to impose their will keep the union together and make slavery illegal across the where, right? Especially right if you asked them, and especially right because they won the means by which those objectives have been reached were extremely bloody, extremely violent, and anybody who died in the process could tell you that from their point of view it may not have

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been worth it or those of more heroic disposition would eventually tell you that it was worth it. But if there are alternative ways of resolving conflicts, isn't that wonderful? Not to have to wage you are and kill than some thousands, hundreds of thousands or maybe millions of people and the blood is not flowing on the streets of London. When the European union learned about the results of the referendum, war preparations didn't start. There was no need.

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The Lisbon treaty, which is a 600 page monstrosity that should have been a Slinger, maybe less prescriptive, more inspiring European constitution that couldn't happen at the time because during the process of rectifying it to relatively smaller members of the EU, if I am not mistaken, take ya. Then the trick, our public and the Netherlands voted it down and as a consequence it couldn't be adopted because it had to be adopted by unanimous decision. Well, the Lisbon treaty organize this and and prescribes and defines all kinds of components of the way that the EU works, including the now famous or infamous article 50 that defines how a member state can separate itself from the EU.

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Invoking article 50 is a fundamental new component of social and political and also economic organization. As far as I know in the past there hasn't been an example of a political unit that felt strong enough and self confident enough to cautify the ability of one of its members to succeed to separate. And if there were, please let me know. I am curious to learn about those examples from the past. Certainly the way that the EU structure, this possibility in my opinion, boots the EU in an extremely strong position contrary to what the political commentators were saying about the fact that the separation of the UK would weaken the EU. I believe that the fact that this can be done strengthens the EU and no, I don't believe that other States are going to follow shortly, big or small. They know it can be done. They've seen the process and if and when they want to do it, they will be able to do it. But in the meantime, the EU can confidently confirm its democratic positions and principles,

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not only in theory but in practice.

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The forces that structure our societies derive from the technologies that we have available,

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The necessity and the ability to produce food, goods and services at the very high efficiency leads to specialization across increasing geographical distances. We have supply chains in globing the entire planet and we have as a consequence ties across nations and we have the necessity as a consequence of nations coordinating their activities. These coordination collaboration leads to peaceful coexistence and this peaceful coexistence is at the basis of the birth of the EU. Originally it was a trade agreement for the trade of carbon and steel and then that agreement has been widened to other Gootz, eliminating tariffs, elevating taxes on exporting and importing various types of goods, all goods within an ever increasing set of countries.

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And then further treaties eased. This collaboration smoothed out the speed bumps to find the ways of improving the production, the commerce studying and living in any place within the EU. At the same time, it is my belief that the current wave of technologies are exercising an opposite force from this unification through the links created by trade and commerce and supply chains and the efficiencies of scale that these interconnected flows imply. These forces are leading towards these centralization solar energy, three D printing, hydroponics, personalized health, peer to peer learning, blockchain in finance, security systems that allow individuals to feel that they are protected in their communities regardless of a larger military protection that is supposed to be needed. And the governance models that allow the organization of activities done by the appropriate level of societal units, you know, lean, efficient manner. All these, in my definition, are leading towards what I call the

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network society.

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And the network society is a in dynamics to the nation state and even to this Meta-national units like the EU. So these two opposing forces are at the play together and Brexit is part of these memetic battles, these battles of ideas that are being born out of technologies that become available, that define the type of social economic organizations that the individuals live in and the nation's state needs to reassert itself. It needs to reassess, re assert itself in the U K through the process of Brexit, stopping the EU from absorbing its functions and making it apparently irrelevant. It needs to reassert itself in Spain stopping the Providences around Barcelona, the desire of that part of the country, of a given proportion of that part of the country to become independent, breaking Spain apart. Now in the past, patriotic and nationalistic forces could pretend, could create the narrative that represented nation States as sacred. They actually were sacred. They were often or universally

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the same as the church in their respective countries. There was no separation of state and church. And as a consequence, the state could leverage religion in order to assert its right to exist. These days with a few exceptions. These cannot happen. And there's a consequence. The state has to fight in order to prove itself worthy of being preserved.

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Now these mimetic battles, even though they are expressed through that vacants of our words, whether spoken or written or in internet videos or in take tog dances, whatever the medium, even though we are the vehicles of this message, the core of the actionable steps and the outright final objective are beyond the scope and the reach of practically all of us, including those that believe because of the position they occupy, that they are the leaders. They are the decision makers as they gather in exclusive places pretending to make or break the destiny of the world.

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These forces and these messages, these mimetic battles are naturally beyond an individual. And if there are exceptions, those are important exceptions that we remember from the history books of individuals who we identify as having had lasting impact through their actions and ideas on the lives of tens or hundreds of millions of people and potentially billions today. But the vast majority understands that these forces are beyond what they can control rather than coming and allowing these forces to dominate their lives. What we have to recognize is that the individuals must achieve the practical right of going beyond these forces of not being dominated by these forces and specifically what this means in the context of the nation state. Resisting the forces of amalgamation of something like the EU or the forces of these centralization in Catalonia or a city wanting to organize itself in a radically different way than the country to which it belongs. What it means is that the individuals

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must be able to freely these associated themselves from their country of residence or citizenship. Today at Paulie's, people who do not have a citizenship are a vanishingly small minority of the world population. It is very hard, even untouched. Aboriginal tribes in the various jungles remaining on the world are claimed by the respective countries containing those jungles I citizens of that country. And as a consequence, somebody wanting to live with valid being beholden to a country or a citizenship must proactively renounce his or her citizenship and then live with the consequences.

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But if we don't want a slim majority of a minority of the population to decide for everybody else in the domination of this process that we choose to call democratic but recognize its limitations, then we have to allow individuals to be freer than we allow them to be today. And we have to teach the various organizational units, the confidence of the EU, the same confidence that the Lisbon treaty illustrated allowing the separation of members States should be adopted by countries allowing their citizens to both physically leave as well as to separate their obligations from the country of their birth or the country of their residence or their country of their later adoption.

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And this should and can be tested. There are countries that are going in this direction allowing both an easier adoption of the country is a country of residence and citizenship with many countries, for example, allowing you to reside in the country as long as you put down how Familia in or dollars in then acquire the passport of that country. And this is deemed very negatively labeled negatively by a lot of observers as if it didn't introduce a degree of freedom. Yes, it requires the person to be wealthy, but it still introduces a degree of freedom. Further, maybe to country can lower that or a larger country can say, well, maybe a 50,000 is enough, or 5,000 days enough. Well knows, and there are countries that make it harder and harder. They extend taxation. Not only those that reside in the country but are anywhere in the world regardless, as long as they are citizens, they must pay taxes or if they want to renounce their citizenship.

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Deborah cratic process rather than lasting a few days or a week is lasting months and months or even years and rather than costing a few hundred Euro or dollars, it is costing thousands or tens of thousands of dollars. An example of the first is Malta member of the European union that allows people to become residents and citizens with the payment of a good amount of money. An example of the second is the feudal United States of America, where the historical lottery of you being born, a citizen of the U S implies a process where you are either permanently resident and a citizen and pay taxes forever or paid taxes even when you are not a resident anymore, regardless of where you are in the world or the payment of an increasingly high amount of money and the going through a gauntlet of a bureaucratic process longer and longer, more and more complicated in order to free yourself from the vassalage of the U S citizenship. Now, of course, all of these are exit durations because

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The process of Brexit is not going to create the tragedy that many have described nor the triumph of an economic Renaissance, a revival of freedoms that have been rebranded by the EU previously, nor the United States is a prison of a country. Many, many more people want to go live in the U S and wanting to acquire the U S citizenship than not those that who wants to leave. But still these forces are at play. And when these forces are changing the balance, it is absolutely not the case that a large percentage of our idea complexes have to be adopted by a number of people in order to represent a substantial majority. On the contrary, ideas change design Geist changes already when a relatively small number of people want things to change, and then let's hope that whatever changes are going to come as we build a future of increasing degrees of freedom, as we recognize an increasing number of minorities fighting for the worthiness of their ideas and the ability to organize their lives

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according to those ideas that this happens in a complicated, convoluted, protracted, expansive, wasteful, but peaceful manner as it has been for Brexit.

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Network Structure Insights
 
mind-viral immunity:
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stucture:
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The higher is the network's structure diversity and the higher is the alpha in the influence propagation score, the higher is its mind-viral immunity — that is, such network will be more resilient and adaptive than a less diverse one.

In case of a discourse network, high mind-viral immunity means that the text proposes multiple points of view and propagates its influence using both highly influential concepts and smaller, secondary topics.
The higher is the diversity, the more distinct communities (topics) there are in this network, the more likely it will be pluralist.
The network structure indicates the level of its diversity. It is based on the modularity measure (>0.4 for medium, >0.65 for high modularity, measured with Louvain (Blondel et al 2008) community detection algorithm) in combination with the measure of influence distribution (the entropy of the top nodes' distribution among the top clusters), as well as the the percentage of nodes in the top community.

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Topics Nodes in Top Topic Components Nodes in Top Comp
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Nodes Av Degree Density Weighed Betweenness
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Narrative Influence Propagation:
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The chart above shows how influence propagates through the network. X-axis: lemma to lemma step (narrative chronology). Y-axis: change of influence.

The more even and rhythmical this propagation is, the stronger is the central idea or agenda (see alpha exponent below ~ 0.5 or less).

The more variability can be seen in the propagation profile, the less is the reliance on the main concepts (agenda), the stronger is the role of secondary topical clusters in the narrative.
propagation dynamics: | alpha exponent: (based on Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of influence) ?   show the chart
We plot the narrative as a time series of influence (using the words' betweenness score). We then apply detrended fluctuation analysis to identify fractality of this time series, plotting the log2 scales (x) to the log2 of accumulated fluctuations (y). If the resulting loglog relation can be approximated on a linear polyfit, there may be a power-law relation in how the influence propagates in this narrative over time (e.g. most of the time non-influential words, occasionally words with a high influence).

Using the alpha exponent of the fit (which is closely related to Hurst exponent)), we can better understand the nature of this relation: uniform (pulsating | alpha <= 0.65), variable (stationary, has long-term correlations | 0.65 < alpha <= 0.85), fractal (adaptive | 0.85 < alpha < 1.15), and complex (non-stationary | alpha >= 1.15).

For maximal diversity, adaptivity, and plurality, the narrative should be close to "fractal" (near-critical state). For fiction, essays, and some forms of poetry — "uniform". Informative texts will often have "variable + stationary" score. The "complex" state is an indicator that the text is always shifting its state.

Degree Distribution:
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(based on kolmogorov-smirnov test) ?   switch to linear
Using this information, you can identify whether the network has scale-free / small-world (long-tail power law distribution) or random (normal, bell-shaped distribution) network properties.

This may be important for understanding the level of resilience and the dynamics of propagation in this network. E.g. scale-free networks with long degree tails are more resilient against random attacks and will propagate information across the whole structure better.
If a power-law is identified, the nodes have preferential attachment (e.g. 20% of nodes tend to get 80% of connections), and the network may be scale-free, which may indicate that it's more resilient and adaptive. Absence of power law may indicate a more equalized distribution of influence.

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test compares the distribution above to the "ideal" power-law ones (^1, ^1.5, ^2) and looks for the best fit. If the value d is below the critical value cr it is a sign that the both distributions are similar.
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Main Topical Groups:

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The topics are the nodes (words) that tend to co-occur together in the same context (next to each other).

We use a combination of clustering and graph community detection algorithm (Blondel et al based on Louvain) to identify the groups of nodes are more densely connected together than with the rest of the network. They are aligned closer to each other on the graph using the Force Atlas algorithm (Jacomy et al) and are given a distinct color.
Most Influential Elements:
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We use the Jenks elbow cutoff algorithm to select the top prominent nodes that have significantly higher influence than the rest.

Click the Reveal Non-obvious button to remove the most influential words (or the ones you select) from the graph, to see what terms are hiding behind them.

The most influential nodes are either the ones with the highest betweenness centrality — appearing most often on the shortest path between any two randomly chosen nodes (i.e. linking the different distinct communities) — or the ones with the highest degree.
Network Structure:
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The network structure indicates the level of its diversity. It is based on the modularity measure (>0.4 for medium, >0.65 for high modularity, measured with Louvain (Blondel et al 2008) community detection algorithm) in combination with the measure of influence distribution (the entropy of the top nodes' distribution among the top clusters), as well as the the percentage of nodes in the top community.


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Structural Gap
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A structural gap shows the two distinct communities (clusters of words) in this graph that are important, but not yet connected. That's where the new potential and innovative ideas may reside.

This measure is based on a combination of the graph's connectivity and community structure, selecting the groups of nodes that would either make the graph more connected if it's too dispersed or that would help maintain diversity if it's too connected.

Latent Topical Brokers
(less visible terms that link important topics):
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These are the latent brokers between the topics: the nodes that have an unusually high rate of influence (betweenness centrality) to their freqency — meaning they may appear not as often as the most influential nodes but they are important narrative shifting points.

These are usually brokers between different clusters / communities of nodes, playing not easily noticed and yet important role in this network, like the "grey cardinals" of sorts.

Emerging Keywords
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Evolution of Topics
(number of occurrences per text segment) ?
The chart shows how the main topics and the most influential keywords evolved over time. X-axis: time period (split into 10% blocks). Y-axis: cumulative number of occurrences.

Drag the slider to see how the narrative evolved over time. Select the checkbox to recalculate the metrics at every step (slower, but more precise).

 
Main Topics
(according to Latent Dirichlet Allocation):
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LDA stands for Latent Dirichlet Allocation — it is a topic modelling algorithm based on calculating the maximum probability of the terms' co-occurrence in a particular text or a corpus.

We provide this data for you to be able to estimate the precision of the default InfraNodus topic modeling method based on text network analysis.
Most Influential Words
(main topics and words according to LDA):
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We provide LDA stats for comparison purposes only. It works with English-language texts at the moment. More languages are coming soon, subscribe @noduslabs to be informed.

Sentiment Analysis


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We analyze the sentiment of each statement to see whether it's positive, negative, or neutral. You can filter the statements by sentiment (clicking above) and see what kind of topics correlate with every mood.

The approach is based on AFINN and Emoji Sentiment Ranking

 
Use the Bert AI model for English, Dutch, German, French, Spanish and Italian to get more precise results (slower). Standard model is faster, works for English only, is less precise, and is based on a fixed AFINN dictionary.

Keyword Relations Analysis:

please, select the node(s) on the graph see their connections...
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Use this feature to compare contextual word co-occurrences for a group of selected nodes in your discourse. Expand the list by clicking the + button to see all the nodes your selected nodes are connected to. The total influence score is based on betweenness centrality measure. The higher is the number, the more important are the connections in the context of the discourse.
Top Relations / Bigrams
(both directions):

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The most prominent relations between the nodes that exist in this graph are shown above. We treat the graph as undirected by default as it allows us to better detect general patterns.

As an option, you can also downloaded directed bigrams above, in case the direction of the relations is important (for any application other than language).

Text Statistics:
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